Bosnia is located in southeastern Europe in the Balkans, where it is bordered on three sides by the state of Croatia, to the north, west and south, to the east by Serbia, and to the west by the Republic of Montenegro.
The climate in Bosnia differs between the regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where the climate in Bosnia prevails in a temperate continental climate, hot in summer and cold winters that accompany snowfall. As for the province of Herzegovina, which is located in the far south of the country, it is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, which is characterized by relative warmth in the winter with rainfall, and dry heat in the summer that may be tempered by winds from the sea side.
The nature of the demographics in Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely unstable since the outbreak of the civil war and its aftermath. Bosnia and Herzegovina is made up of three different ethnicities: Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats. And there are still many problems among those ethnicities that are manifested in political matters now, after periods in which the massacres of ethnic cleansing terrified the international community at that time.
The demographics and geographical location in the center of the former Yugoslav Federation led to the emergence of a major problem in the Bosnian economy after the end of the Bosnian war. It was a planned economy that was established by the communist government, in which military industries increased significantly. After independence, these industries no longer have a significant place due to the absence of the Yugoslav Federation, in addition to the fact that Bosnian agriculture is small and fragile and characterized by the inefficiency of farmers, which led to total dependence on agricultural products imported from abroad. The government is making great efforts to confront the economic danger in the country, which has been relatively successful and the economy has begun to recover after the devastating 1990s.